Groundnuts Revenue Didn’t Develop Eastern Region, Anyone Who Says That is Either Unaware Of History or Mischievous |RN

Palm tree and fruits

By Anonymous Writer

Revenues from groundnut was never used to develop the East. Anyone who says this is either ignorant of history or is trying to be mischievous

It may have been used by Ahmadu Bello to grow the economy of the North and thank God for that

But the East’s economy prior to 1970 ran on a completely different plate

The economy of the former Eastern Region was planned from ground up by the US consulting firm Arthur D. Little

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Zik brought them and they worked with MI Okpara at first, then with Sam Otti and Eluwa who headed the Civil Service and later with Louis Phillip Odumegwu Ojukwu who at the time was the Chairman of the Eastern Nigeria Development Corporation (ENDC) and also the Chairman of the Eastern Nigeria Commodities Board (ENCB)

Louis Phillip also sat as Chairman of 15 multinational companies at the time – John Holt, PZ, Michelin, Costain, Thomas Wyatt, Guinness, GB Ollivant etc

He was so rich that he single handedly funded the establishment of the Lagos Stock Exchange but refused to list his company there for fear of losing control

His photo still hangs proudly on the floor of that exchange as its first chairman

Arthur D. Little also worked with a coterie of young Eastern Nigerian economists at the time – Pius Okigbo (PhD Northwestern), Ukwu I. Ukwu (PhD Cambridge), Chukwu Sunday Okongwu (PhD Harvard). These young men in their early twenties worked with Arthur D. Little to plan our economy from scratch

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I know this because Ukwu I Ukwu taught me at Nsukka and I also worked in Dr Chu SP Okongwu’s economic planning firm right during and after grad school in Nigeria

Arthur D. Little recommended the setting up of a university in the East to produce key skills needed to drive economic growth as most of those skills were not being taught in Ibadan at the time

Zip sent Dr Akpabio (MA Columbia) who at the time was the East’s Minister of Education on an extended tour to universities in Michigan New York for collaboration in key fields like medicine, engineering,, surveying and photogrammetry and business administration.

UNN was the first school in Nigeria to offer many of these courses. Ibadan at the time taught mostly Classics, General Science and later Medicine

Palm oil, Palm Kernel, Coal, Cocoa (from Ikom), Coffee from Obudu and later petroleum from firstly Izombe – Oguta area and later from Oloibiri in Ijaw land drove the economy of the East

In terms of development,, the East started late, compared to the West.

Development and education had started in Lagos and Abeokuta right after Beecrift occupied Lagis in 1850s and made it a Britush colony. Lagos and the SW thus had more than a 70 year headstart over the East in terms of total gross capital formation and the platform that it gave for growth.

But after the implementation of Arthur D Little’s recomnended growth plan, the East’s economy grew at more than 9.2%, starting from 1958 till 1967 when the war began

At over 9%, the Eastern Region in this period, had the fastest growing economy on earth consistently for 9 years and was estimated to equal Western Nigeria by 1978 (in terms of total gross capital formation) and then overtake the Western Region after that.

The civil war truncated that momentum and the East never recovered after that

Louis Philip Odumegwu Ojukwu brought his industrial influence to bear on the growth plan as he singlehandedly pushed for the establishment of not just industrial estates but industrial corridors in the region

An industrial estate is localized. An industrial corridor jojbs two or more industrial estates to form an industrial conurbation

Industrial estates sprang up across the East
TransAmadi in PH

Aba for light industries

Umuahia for biotechnology

Emene in Enugu for steel and industrial automation

Nkalagu, PH and Calabar for cement and building materials

Onitsha as an emporium to drive retail trading

Obudu in Cross River for dairy, holidaying and corporate meetings

Because he was the chairman of 15 multinational companies at the time, he used his influence to compel many of them to buy into the East’s industrialization plan

Okpara also partnered with Israel for the setting up of industrial farms and plantations – seedling production, extension services, assistance to farmers etc

So plantations (cashew nuts, palm kernel, cocoa, coffee, timber etc) sprang up in Oghe (Enugu State), Okigwe (Abia State), Obudu, Itumbenuzor, Akamkpa all in Cross River state and in various parts of Rivers, Akwa Ibom, Imo, Abia etc

Okpara personally delivered some of the seedlings himself by driving behind the trucks that did the delivery

Sir Louis Phillip pushed for the establushment of 3 major cement plants in the region – Nkalagu, Eastern Bulkcem in PH and Calabar cement factory in Calabar

Nkalagu and PH opened before the war started in 1967. Everything for the take off of tve Calabar cement factory was purchased but the war truncated its take off

In 1970, Governor Esuene of the newly-created Cross River State opened Calcemco plant to the appause of many

Three industrial corridors were planned also planned for the East

The Emene-Nkalagu Industrial corridor which was to focus on automobiles, building materials and industrial automation. Kaiser Motors in the US at the time (it has since been acquired) had agreed to build a car plant in Emene and a plant for car engines. That corridor was to stretch for almost 100 miles

The second industrial corridor was to stretch between PH and Aba. So industrial centers were set up in Trans Amadi and in Aba and over a ten to 15 year period, these two centers were to be linked by many feeder industries that would be located on the highway joining both cities

Okpara had hoped that over time, the PH-Aba industrial corridor would follow the old road between Port Harcourt and Enugu and join with the Emene – Nkalagu industrial corridor to create a massive industrial cornubation that almost imitates the almost 200 kilometer Ruhr Industrial Valley in Germany built under Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck

Onitsha was to drive the East’s Retail economy and so the market was built there as an Emporium…to attract buyers from all over Nigeria and West and Central Africa so they could come spend their money in the East.

Dubai would copy this same model 50 years later and implement it successfully but on a global scale. Onitsha market achieved its purpose by 1958, two years after the East achieved self government. It became the preferred destination for retail and bulk shoppers from a over West Africa and even Cameroon, Gabon and Congo. This gave the Anambra Igbo a head start in retail trading…an advantage that they enjoy till date

All of these development and growth projects were centrally driven by the Eastern Nigeria Development Corporation – ENDC and the revenues were centrally aggregated into the account of the Eastern Nigerian Commodities Board (ENCB). Both groups were headed by Sir Louis Phillip Odumegwu Ojukwu

Funds for development came mostly from 3 sources

  1. Local revenues from the export of cocoa(Ikom and Itumbenuzor), coffee (Obudu and Arochukwu), timber (Akamkpa) Coal (Enugu-Udi), Palm oil (Rivers, Imo, Abia), Palm kernel (Rivers, Imo, Abia)
  2. Direct Foreign Investments
  3. Loans from Commonwealth Development Corpirtaion (CDC)

Umuahia was to midwife the Easts’ biotechnology industries which explains why Golden Guinea Brewery and the Root Crop Research Instutute were established there

Obudu because of its pristine hills and its fresh weather was to be a holiday resort for many as well as a primary center for a dairy industry that just started before the war commenced. Obudu Cattle Ranch was the first in a series of investments that got scuttled in Obudu by the war

Lastly, oil was discovered late. Chief Nwodo, Eastern Nigeria’s first Minister for Trade (father to the Ohaneze Chairman) negotiated the first contracts with Shell on a 50-50 investment and sharing basis

Virtually all of the East’s oil assets were seized by the Federal Government under Gowon with no compensation paid till date. The Federal Government simply inherited the East’s 50% slot and paid nothing for it. Today everyone profits from it

Most of the catalytic cracking and downward refineries that NNPC would later build were in the plans that the Eastern Regional Government had for the region

Today, some of those plants are located in far away Kaduna and no mention is ever made of the East

Every Nigerian today depends on that oil to survive including states that claim that they can survive from internally-generated revenues

I believe that rather than whine everyday, we Igbos should sit down and learn our history…take a look at the growth plans that got scuttled in 1967 and see how we can work to together to pick up the pieces and build again from scratch

It is not late

Taa bu gboo


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EXPOSED: Names Of War And Humanity Crimes Perpetrators In Eastern Nigeria Made Public |The Republican News

Onitsha Eastern Nigeria, Sunday, 20th June 2021:

Governors Hope Uzodimma of Imo State and David Umahi of Ebonyi State as elected public office holders are the two principal entrants in the latest list of War and Humanity Crimes perpetrators in the ongoing genocidal military and police operations in Eastern Nigeria. Governor Nyesom Wike of Rivers State did not make the present list but made it in the list of perpetrators involved in the Obigbo Army massacre and abductions of October/November 2020. Though Abia State accounts for the second largest number of casualties and destroyed or burnt properties perpetrated by security forces, but Intersociety did not find sufficient evidence linking its Governor, Victor Ikpeazu to the conduct atrocities. Governor David Umahi is included for vicariously being in the know and encouraging the atrocity crimes by his policies and utterances especially in his capacity as the Chairman of the Southeast Governors Forum.

It must be placed on record that the controversial emergence of the Imo Governor following the January 2020 shameful judgment of the Supreme Court of Nigeria, is the root cause of the ongoing mayhem in the State which started in the middle of January 2021 and has escalated to eight others States of Abia, Rivers, Akwa Ibom, Cross River, Anambra, Ebonyi, Enugu and Delta. Since then, investigative evidence at our disposal has clearly shown that the Imo Governor has, by policies, conducts and utterances, inescapably aided and abetted the butcheries and property burning and destruction targeted at and unleashed on innocent and defenseless citizens of the State. Intersociety had blacklisted the serving Justices of the Supreme Court and the Court of Appeal and resolved not to add “Lordship/Honorable” in their official titles until further notice.

In our investigative findings, all the top commanders of the Nigerian Army in Imo, Abia, Rivers, Akwa Ibom, Enugu, Ebonyi, Anambra, Cross River and Delta States are included and they include: Major Gen Toareed Lagbaja, GOC, 82 Division, Enugu, Major Gen Sani Gambo Mohammed, GOC, 6 Division, Port Harcourt, Brig Gen GS Mohammed, Commander, 82 Division Finance Corps, Enugu, Brig Gen A. Idris, Brigade Commander, 63 Brigade, Asaba, Brigadier Gen Raymond Utsaha, Brigade Commander, 34 Brigade, Obinze near Owerri, Brig Gen M. Ibrahim, Brigade Commander, 14 Brigade, Ohafia, Abia State, Brig Gen M.A. Abdullahi, Brigade Commander, 13 Brigade, Calabar, Col Abdulsalam Abubakar Sambo, Cantonment Commandant, 302 Artillery Regiment, Onitsha, Lt Col O. Sadiq, Commanding Officer, 24 Army Support Engineering, Abakiliki, Lt Col Yusuf Salisu, immediate past Commanding Officer, 103 Battalion, Awkunanaw, Enugu, Lt Col Charles Ekeocha, Spokesman, 6 Division, Port Harcourt, Major Ahmed, Commanding Officer, Onitsha Cantonment Military Police.

Other Army commanders in the Region accountable for the butcheries and property destruction and burning are the present Commanders of 2 Brigade, Uyo, 6 Division Garrison, 56 Signals and 46 Engineers Brigades, Port Harcourt and the 82 Division Garrison Brigade and its 44 Engineers and 54 Signals Brigades, Enugu as well as Commanding Officers of 144 Battalion, Asa/Aba in Abia State, 343 Battalion, Elele in Rivers State, 130 Battalion and 341 Artillery Regiment, Ogoja in Cross River State and other commanders/commanding officers of the affiliated formations, units and sectors including the Military Police formations under 82 Division, Enugu and 6 Division, Port Harcourt. Included are Spokespersons of 82 and 6 Divisions as well as spokespersons of 34 Brigade, Obinze and 14 Brigade, Ohafia. Other military commanders involved are Navy Commodore SH Abdullahi, Commander, and Nigerian Navy School of Finance & Logistics, Owerrenta, Abia State and Commanding Officers of 211 Regiment of the Nigerian Air Force, Owerri and Nigerian Naval Base in Ogbaru, Anambra State. The AIG, Zone 9, Umuahia, Ene Okon, Abia CP, Janet Agbede and Imo CP, Abutu Yaro and their Commands’ DCPs/ACPs for Operations and Criminal Investigations Departments and PPROs, SP Geoffrey Ogbonna and SP Bala Elkan and DCP Abba Kyari and his “Intelligence Response Team” are added in the list of conduct atrocity crimes perpetrators.

It is settled and beyond argumentation that “when crimes, especially those of grievous nature are perpetrated but not investigated, documented and archived with their perpetrators identified in writing, it is not only that no crimes have been committed in the eyes of criminal law and records but also failure to investigate, document and archive such heinous crimes technically set the perpetrators free for the rest of their lives and earn the status of repeat=offenders. But when reverse is the case, the perpetrators become persona non gratae and liable in law, diplomatic and other noble social circles for the rest of their lives and life after death”.

By updated account of 17th June of our extensive investigations since late January 2021: “in 167 days of 2021 or 1st January to 17th June, the Nigerian security forces especially Army and Police abducted or arrested and incarcerated no fewer than 2,560 mostly innocent and law abiding citizens of Igbo Christian extraction across the named nine States; that not less than 510 others were traceably killed including 150 victims of the State backed Jihadist Fulani Herdsmen killings; that out of the over 2560 abductees or arrestees, 620 were disappeared or feared killed in the captivity of the military; that over 90% of the victims of the above conduct atrocities are innocent citizens falsely labeled and criminally stigmatized; that over 90% of Police and Military claims of “killing” or “arresting” ESN/IPOB hoodlums/terrorists/supporters/charms provider-native doctors” are false and unfounded; that 14 out of every 15 citizens killed are innocent and defenseless; likewise 24 out of every 25 arrested; that 59 out of every 60 abducted and disappeared by soldiers are not most likely to return to their homes or families alive and that out of over 360 victims of the military and police killings, less than 10% of them were combatively involved, out of which 60% were killed outside the law or ought not to have been shot and killed on account of being nonviolent at the time of their shooting and killing; and in other words, they are victims of deadly use of force”.

The Nigerian Defense Headquarters which coordinates the operations of the Armed Forces in the named nine States had also on 17th June 2021, issued a statement admitting “killing scores of IPOB/ESN members” in the past two weeks. Here is the link to the statement: The Chairman of the Southeast Governors Forum, Dave Umahi of Ebonyi State also issued a statement on 19th June 2021, “condemning the killing of civilians in the Southeast zone by security agencies”: The findings made by Intersociety are in the two links below: and

By Sections 33 and 36 of the Nigeria’s 1999 Constitution and relevant others contained in the African Rights Charter and International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, security operatives are forbidden from killing or fatally wounding any citizen suspected of having committed a crime or about to commit the same irrespective of the crime’s gravity who is arrested unarmed or nonviolently; or killing or fatally wounding of such citizen in custody after he or she was arrested unarmed and taken into custody. Section 36 (5) also presumes the citizen innocent until judicially found guilty. This further means that ‘investigative indictment’ is never a license to shoot and kill ‘ the citizen or terminally dismembering his or her in parts or in whole body. Section 35 of the same Constitution and its African Charter and ICCPR counterparts also guarantee every accused and arrested or detained citizen the right to be brought and tried in Court within stipulated timeframe and Section 42 forbids discrimination against any citizen on the grounds of his or her place of birth, ethnicity, gender, religion and class.

The Nigerian security forces and their commanders listed above and deployed especially in Imo and Abia States have in addition to heinous constitutional and other treaty law breaches above highlighted also egregiously committed War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity, clearly defined and outlined in Articles 7 and 8 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court of 1998, signed and ratified by Nigeria on 27th September 2001. Intersociety hereby respectfully states that pending the time appropriate for international committal proceedings against the principal perpetrators and their subordinates at appropriate trial chambers, the EU, USA, Canada, UK, Scotland, Mexico, South Korea, Brazil, New Zealand, Australia and respected intergovernmental, nongovernmental and human rights compliant multinational corporations and institutions, etc are called upon to internationally, diplomatically and sanctionably take note of the above named conduct atrocity perpetrators.


For: International Society for Civil Liberties and Rule of Law

Principal Officers: Emeka Umeagbalasi, Chinwe Umeche, Esq., Chidimma Udegbunam, Esq., and Uju Igboeli, Esq.

Contacts: Phone/WhatsApp: +2348174090052, Email:, Website:

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South-East, South-South Governors, Politicians Informed Before Establishing Eastern Security Network —IPOB

Eastern Security Network Officers

By Chimaobi Nwaiwu, Nnewi.

Contrary to the impressing that the South East and South-South Governors and politicians, particularly the National and State Assembly lawmakers, were taken unawares before it established, the Eastern Security Network, ESN, the Indigenous People of Biafra, IPOB has made public the letter it wrote to them, through its leader Mazi Nnamdi Kanu, before it established the security outfit.

The Biafra agitating group stated that it informed the Governors and politicians of the two regions on the imperative and implication of not having a security outfit before it came up with ESN when it became clear that they were not ready to protect their people.

Mazi Kanu had in a letter he personally signed, dated May 15, 2020, addressed to the South East and South-South Governors, National and State Assembly lawmakers, and Security agencies in South-East and South-South, informing them about IPOB’s establishment of ESN, to stop alleged siege on South-East and South-South communities, allegedly perpetrated by alien invaders and sponsored killer mercenaries from it said are from the Sahel.

According to the latter which was made available to newsmen through OPOB’s Media and Publicity Secretary Emma Powerful, the pro-Biafra group said it decided to make the letter public because IPOB has been accused at various times of being reluctant to reach out to the elected political class in the crucial project of liberating Biafra land from the vicious and deadly grip of killer herdsmen, terrorists, religious and territorial expansionism, allegedly tacitly tolerated encouraged by the Federal Government of Nigeria.

IPOB letter reads in part, “This day May 15, 2020, we wish to inform Governors, National and  State Houses of Assembly Members of Southeast and South-South States, Security of Southeast and South-South, your Excellencies and Honorables, that It is no longer news that our communities are under siege from alien invaders and sponsored killer mercenaries from the Sahel.”

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‘It is also on record that IPOB  has been accused at various times of a reluctance to reach out to the elected political class in the crucial project of liberating our land from the vicious and deadly grip of religious and territorial expansionism, tacitly tolerated or encouraged, by the present Nigerian Federal government.

“Even President Muhammadu Buhari had himself recently confirmed this when he pointed to foreign Fulani elements as the core culprits in this murderous campaign.

“It is against this background and at this auspicious moment that the Covid 19 pandemic lockdown is in force; and when the fault lines in the area of our collective security and protection of our vulnerable communities have all the more been in the limelight that we now feel compelled to bury the hatchet and reach out to you to bring your good offices to bear.

“I am therefore by this communication extending hands of fellowship to you while inviting you to advert your minds to your obligations to live up to your conditional duties and responsibilities in initiating laws and policies that will impact positively on our people, especially in regard to the security of lives, property and protection of our borders against those that levy terror and jihadism.

“There is an ongoing and well-planned attack by supremacists against our people and we urge you all to collaborate with IPOB in the onerous task of keeping our communities safe.

“We urge the state legislators, in collaboration with the Governors to as a matter of extreme urgency, pass legislation that will engender coordinated security outfits to tackle these menaces.

“IPOB is committed to assisting in this regard if called upon to do so. You can take umbrage in the fact that you are the ones possessing the constitutional mandate to initiate economic and social policies for our region in a way that will even encourage Biafran entrepreneurs in the diaspora to look homewards.

“Your intervention is much more urgent because of the portent existential political and economic threats to our collective existence. Though not generally known, the Constitution of Nigeria, by implication, allows us, and any cohesive group of aggrieved Nigerians to seek self-determination and autonomy as a people.

“This is specifically provided for under Articles 1 & 20 of the African Charter on Human and Peoples Rights, ratified and domesticated by Nigeria in 1983 at CAP A9, Laws of Federation of Nigeria, 2004.

“Why then are you not taking the expected and appropriate legislative measures to enforce such clear statutory provisions? Why are our lawmakers not having the appetite to see what the law says? Why are our people suffering as a consequence of this inaction?

“This is the kernel of this communication. It, therefore, requires your urgent and most serious consideration.

“In the interim, we demand answers as to why you saw fit to proscribe IPOB. While pondering, you must know that Biafran youths will remain unhappy with you unless and until you de-proscribe IPOB.

“While awaiting your response, please accept my assurances that for as long as the interest of our people remains paramount in all your official reckonings, the IPOB shall remain amenable to consulting with you, going forward.” (Vanguard News)

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